World War II
- Known also as the second World War, World War II dates from september 1, 1939 to september 2, 1945, and involved the Axis Powers (Germany, italy, Japan) and the Allies (France, Great Britain, ussR, united states, and China). The war was caused by the expansion and conquests of the fascist Axis powers, in particular the German invasion of Poland on september 1. The rise of fascism, or National socialism, in Germany was the result, in large, part of the diktat of Versailles of 1919, which intensified German resentment, thus making World War ii, in a real sense, a direct result of World War I. political, diplomatic, and military 1939: september 3—French and British declaration of war on Germany (italian nonbelligerent status; U.S. neutrality). September 28—German-soviet Treaty and partition of Poland. Front: september 1-27—Campaign in Poland. september-october—French operations in the Saar. November 30—Russian attack on Finland. september-November—Japanese invasion of China, taking of Nanjing (Nanking).1940: June 10—italy declares war on France and Great Britain. June 17—pétain requests an armistice. June 18 Appeal of General de gaulle from London. June 22-25—Franco-German and Franco-italian armistices. July 10—Pétain invested with constituent power. september 27— Tripartite Pact (German-italy-Japan). August-september—Romanian territory given to Hungary and Bulgaria. october 24—meeting of Hitler and Pétain at Montoire. Western front: April 9-June 10—Campaign in Norway. May 10-June 25—Campaign in France. May 15-18—Dutch and Belgian capitulations. May 28-June 4—Battle of Dunkerque. June 14—Germans arrive in paris. August-October—air Battle of Britain. Eastern front: June 15-29—soviet occupation of the Baltic states and other areas. october 7—Ger-man invasion of Romania. october 28—italian invasion of Greece. Africa: July 3—French fleet taken at Mers el-Kébir. August-December—Italian attack on somalia and Libya.1941: April 13—Soviet-Japanese Treaty. May 28— Darlan-Warlimont Accords on Africa. July 29— Franco-Japanese accord on indochina. August 14—Atlantic Charter. september 24—creation of the Comité national français in London. November 18—General weygand recalled from Africa. December 7—United States, then China, declares war the Axis powers. Eastern front: April—German intervention in Greece. June 22—German offensive against the ussR. other fronts: June 8—Campaign in Syria. December 7—Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. German (March) offensive, then British (November) in Libya.1942: January 1—formation of the united Nations. April 18—laval head of vichy government. August 8—indian Congress asks Britain to leave India. May-July—beginning of deportations and of the French resistance. November 8—Pétain orders resistance to the Allies in Africa. November 10—Franco-Allied armistice in Africa. November 11—Germans invade the French nonoccupied zone. November 13—darlan brings French Africa to the Allied side. December 26—giraud replaces Darlan, who was assassinated. African front: Rommel attacks Libya. october 23—El Alamein. Russian front: German offensives. Far East: Japanese take the Philippines and singapore (January-February). France: November 27—scuttling of the French fleet at Toulon. Dissolution of the armistice army.1943: January 14—Casablanca Conference. May 12—Giraud in Tunis. May—Constitution of the National Council of the French Resistance. June 3—formation in Algiers of the French Committee of National Liberation. July 27—dismissal of Mussolini; Badoglia government. september 17—creation of the Consultative Assembly in Algiers. November 8—Lebanon abolishes the French mandate. October 13—Badoglio declares war on Germany. December 2—Teheran Conference. Fronts: Africa: January 23—British take Tripoli, rejoin French-American forces in Tunisia (April). Italy: December 10—Allies land in sicily. september 8—italian surrender. Russia: February 2—stalingrad. Far East: Allied counteroffensive in Gilbert and solomon islands (June-December).1944: January 3—France recognizes sovereignty of syria and Lebanon. June 3—CFLN proclaimed provisional government. June 10—Massacre at oradour. Fronts: italy: February-May—Battle of Cassino. France: March-April—Battles of Glières and Vercors. June 6—Normandy landing. August 15—invasion of Provence. August 25— Liberation of paris. August 31—transfer of government form Algiers to Paris. september 5—Benelux Constitution. Fronts: eastern: February-April—Russian offensive. Far East: Battles of New Guinea (January-July), Marianas, and Philippines.1945: February 12—Yalta Conference. July 26— Potsdam Conference. Fronts: west: March— Allies cross the Rhine. East: soviets take Warsaw(January) and enter Berlin (May). France: May 7—German surrender at Reims. Far East: Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (August), Japanese surrender (August 15).After the Munich Pact in September 1939 (dal-adier), Germany continued its policy of annexation and war broke out, leading to the invasion and occupation of France. The third republic came to an end when the armistice was signed (June 22, 1940) and the National Assembly voted full powers to Marshal Pétain. While the Vichy government followed a policy of collaboration with the Germans, resistance was organized after de Gaulle's appeal, and fought against the occupation. By 1944, most of France was liberated and after the war (1946), the new government of the fourth republic was formed.
France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.
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